Cotton Castle in Turkey is home to the world’s largest travertine deposit.


Cotton Castle in Turkey is home to the world’s largest travertine deposit.

The world’s largest deposit of travertine was created by the hot springs in Pamukkale, Turkey.

For thousands of years, the hot springs and thermal pools of Pamukkale, Turkey, have been a spiritual, cultural, and recreational destination. The ancient Greco-Roman city of Hierapolis was erected upon the terraces of travertine, a type of rock formed when calcium carbonate precipitates from hot water, in the second century B.C. Visitors can swim among shattered columns that collapsed during the Laodikeia earthquake in the early seventh century C.E. at the nearby Cleopatra’s Pools. In 1988, Hierapolis-Pamukkale was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The world’s greatest deposit of these rocks can be found in western Anatolia, Turkey, where the Earth’s crust is separating. This crustal extension results in numerous fractures and fissures, as well as volcanic, seismic, and geothermal activity.

The 6-kilometer-long Pamukkale plateau, on the northern edge of the Denizli Basin, is one of the largest parts, with rock up to 50 meters thick. On the raised side of the Pamukkale fault, the site includes a stunning complex of white calcite terraces and rimstone pools falling over 200-meter-high cliffs. Pamukkale, which means “cotton castle” or “cotton palace,” is named after the dazzling white rocks. The Pamukkale deposits, which are seen in white in the figure above, occupy 12 square kilometers (5 square miles). The image was taken by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra satellite on October 9, 2021. The image was taken in visible and near infrared (bands 3,2,1), which gives the plants a reddish hue.

The water temperatures in these pools and springs range from 19 to 57 degrees Fahrenheit (65 to 135 degrees Celsius), with some reaching 100 degrees Fahrenheit or more. Rainwater flows down into a network of cracks and fissures and is heated by magma deep underground, forming travertine. Calcium, magnesium, and other minerals are leached from the limestone bedrock by the hot water. The saturated solution then percolates back to the surface, resurfacing from springs where the minerals precipitate.

Since the Pleistocene epoch, travertine has been deposited in the area for at least 600,000 years. Much of the deposition in Pamukkale, on the other hand, has occurred in the last 50,000 years. According to research, the existing hydrothermal and depositional system was developed following the Laodikeia earthquake in the seventh century.

The temperature regime has also shifted over time. Higher-temperature springs produce calcite travertine, while lower-temperature springs produce porous tufa deposits. Age… Summary of the latest news from Brinkwire.


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